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Diabetes (diabetes mellitus ) is a long-term disease characterized by blood sugar levels above normal . The main types of this disease is diabetes type 1 and type 2 .

Diabetes sufferers in Indonesia
Indonesia's largest including 10 diabetics. In 2013, people with diabetes in Indonesia is estimated to amount to about 8.5 million people aged 20-79 years (quoted from the International Diabetes Federation). But less than 50% of them were aware of it.

What are the Symptoms of Diabetes?
It's important for everyone to know the early symptoms of diabetes. Not only for those at high risk, but also for those who feel healthy and do not have a history or potential diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes can develop quickly in a few weeks, even a few days. While many people with type 2 diabetes who do not realize that they had suffered from diabetes for many years because the symptoms tend to be nonspecific. Some of the symptoms of diabetes type 1 and type 2 include:
  • Often feel thirsty.
  • Frequent urination, especially at night.
  • Extreme hunger.
  • Weight loss for no apparent reason.
  • There are ketones in your urine. Ketones are a byproduct of muscle metabolism and fat that occurs when not enough insulin production.
  • Fatigue.
  • Blurred vision.
  • Decreased muscle mass.
  • Old wounds heal.
  • High blood pressure.
  • Frequent infections, such as the gums, skin, vaginal, or urinary tract.
Effect of Hormone Insulin and Diabetes
All cells in the human body needs sugars to be able to work normally. Levels of sugars in the blood is usually controlled by the hormone insulin produced by the pancreas, an organ located behind the stomach.

Sugars can enter into the cells of the body with the help of insulin move glucose when food is digested and enter the bloodstream. Glucose that are then processed to generate energy in the body.
But the pancreas organ in the body diabetics are unable to produce insulin the body needs. Without insulin, the body's cells can not absorb and process glucose into energy.

Overview of Diabetes Type 1
People with certain types of diabetes are dependent on insulin because the immune system of sufferers will attack and destroy the cells of the pancreas that produce insulin. This triggers increased levels of glucose, causing damage to the body organs.

Type 1 diabetics are usually the people who are under 40 years old and generally appears in adolescence or young children. Therefore this type of diabetes is also called juvenile diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes is rare when compared to diabetes type 2. Only about two people who suffer from diabetes type 1 among all 10 diabetics.

Besides must receive insulin injections each day, people with type 1 diabetes are also advised to keep glucose levels in the blood to remain balanced. For example, with a healthy diet and regular blood tests.

Overview of Type 2 Diabetes
This is the type of diabetes is more common. About 80% of people with diabetes in Indonesia suffer from this type of diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes is caused by lack of insulin production in the body or the cells of the body become less sensitive to insulin. Insensitivity of body cells is known as insulin resistance.

Symptoms in people with diabetes may be controlled with a healthy diet and monitor the glucose levels in the blood. But be alert because the disease will continue to develop in the body and slowly you will need treatment (usually in tablet form).

Type 2 diabetes is often associated with obesity. The higher the body mass index, the risk of this type of diabetes will also be higher. Diabetes due to obesity primarily affects the elderly.

Diabetes Risk Pregnancy
Diabetes also often affect pregnant mothers because there are some women who have blood glucose levels were very high during pregnancy so that their bodies can not produce enough insulin to absorb it. Diabetes known as gestational diabetes can occur at about two people among the 100 women who became pregnant.

People with type 1 diabetes who become pregnant will also have a high risk because it can affect the mother and fetus. Because it is highly important for diabetics who are pregnant to maintain balance in blood glucose levels.

Mothers who are pregnant should be more careful when monitoring blood glucose levels in the second trimester (14-26 weeks) because of gestational diabetes usually develops during this period and will disappear after you give birth. But the risk of developing type 2 diabetes for women who have had gestational diabetes are three times higher than the general population.
read also : the-risk-of-obesity-during-pregnancy

Find out information about both types of diabetes more via the second link below.

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